1. Entities that continue or persist through time, such as objects?, qualities, and functions?.
    (Source: Arp, R., & Smith, B. (2008). Function, Role, and Disposition in Basic Formal Ontology, Retrieved from
  2. Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) 2.0 OWL file defines 'continuant' as 'an entity? that persists, endures, or continues to exist through time while maintaining its identity.'
    (Source: BFO 2.0 OWL)
  3. Entities? that are ‘in time’, they are ‘wholly’ present (all their proper parts are present) at any time of their existence.
    (Source: Masolo, C., Borgo, S., Gangemi, A., Guarino, N., & Oltramari, A. (2003). WonderWeb Deliverable D18, Retrieved from
  4. An entity? that continues or persists through time, including (1) independent objects?, (2) qualities and dispositions, and (3) the spatial regions? these entities? occupy at any given time. Continuant and occurrent are the two highest categories (universals) in BFO.
    (Source: Arp, R., Smith, B., & Spear, A.D. (2015). Building Ontologies with Basic Formal Ontology. Cambridge: The MIT Press)