- entities that can have instances (WonderWeb Deliverable D18).
- A mind-independent, repeatable feature of reality that exists only as instantiated in a respective particular (individual thing, instance) and is also dependent upon a particular for its existence. For example, the two universals red and ball are instantiated in a red ball lying on the floor. All particulars stand in the instantiation relation to some universal. Universals are the sorts of entities that are represented by general terms used in the formulation of scientific laws (Arp, Smith and Spear, 2015).